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In the 1870s, a population of 23 non-Hispanic whites and 150 Hispanics was reported. Spanish-language newspapers, theaters, movie houses, and schools were established, many supported by a thriving Mexican refugee middle class.With the arrival of the Southern Pacific, Texas and Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads in 1881, the population boomed to 10,000 by the 1890 census, with many Anglo-Americans, recent immigrants, old Hispanic settlers, and recent arrivals from Mexico. Large numbers of clerics, intellectuals, and businessmen took refuge in the city, particularly between 19.A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" (meaning opposite El Paso del Norte, across the Rio Grande) was established in 1849 on Coons' Rancho beside the settlement of Franklin, which became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas; After the army left in 1851 the rancho went into default and was repossessed; in 1852 a post office was established on the rancho bearing the name El Paso as an example of Cross-border town naming until El Paso del Norte was renamed Juarez in 1888.After changing hands twice more the El Paso company was set up in 1859 and bought the property, hiring Anson Mills to survey and lay out the town forming the current street plan of downtown El Paso.After the Civil War's conclusion, the town's population began to grow as Texans continued to move into the villages and soon became the majority. Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, was put in charge of a 250 private security detail hired by John Hays Hammond, who in addition to owning large investments in Mexico was a close friend of Taft from Yale and a U. By 1910, the overwhelming number of people in the city were Americans creating a settled environment.El Paso itself, incorporated in 1873, encompassed the small area communities that had developed along the river. However, this period was short-lived as the Mexican Revolution greatly impacted the city, bringing an influx of refugees – and capital – to the bustling boom town.During the Civil War, a Confederate presence was in the area until it was captured by the Union California Column in 1862.It was then headquarters for the 5th Regiment California Volunteer Infantry until December 1864. On October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham and Private C. Moore, a Texas Ranger, discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route.
The subsequent reprisals by local militia soon caused an escalation of violence, wherein it is estimated that approximately 300 Mexicans and Mexican-Americans lost their lives.Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844: the Republic of Texas, which claimed the area, wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade.The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river part of the US, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side.Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. The evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation.Also headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, United States Border Patrol El Paso Sector, and the U. The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers.