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But CCDs are still widely used in some applications, such as low-light astronomy.

Whether images are being generated by a CMOS sensor or a CCD and other circuitry, the basic process is the same: an incoming image is converted into an outgoing pattern of digital pixels.

This information is turned into a number that can be stored on a memory chip inside the camera.

Thus, taking a digital photograph converts the picture you see into a very long string of numbers.

Take a photo the same size with those two cameras and the 12 megapixel one is going to give you 1000 more dots horizontally and 1000 more vertically—smaller dots giving more detail and higher resolution.

A single pixel in a really good sensor is something like 10 micrometers (10μm) in diameter (5–10 times smaller than the diameter of a typical human hair)!

Unlike a digital camera, a webcam has no built-in memory chip or flash memory card: it doesn't need to "remember" pictures because it's designed to capture and transmit them immediately to a computer.

As we'll see in a moment, the image sensor and its circuitry converts the picture in front of the camera into digital format—a string of zeros and ones that a computer knows how to handle. A webcam is a bit like a digital camera and works much the same way. With one of these tiny, bug-eyed cameras hooked up to your computer, you can broadcast pictures of yourself or your home to the entire world!But a CCD is essentially an analog optical chip that converts light into varying electrical signals, which are then passed on to one or more other chips where they're digitized (turned into numbers).By contrast, a CMOS chip does everything in one place: it captures light rays and turns them into digital signals all on the one chip.

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