In Germany, doctor and magister were interchangeable (Kaufmann, "Geschichte" etc., II, 268 sqq.), and though the mastership is no longer conferred as a separate degree, a trace of the medieval practice is still found in the diploma which styles its recipient "Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts ".
During the first half of the twelfth century, the title Doctor acquired a more special significance, though it still implied personal excellence rather than official position.
At Paris, the licentiate meant a real authorization to teach, besides being a pre-requisite for admission to the final examination ( inceptio ) at which the doctorate was conferred.
There was a corresponding difference in the length of the course for the degree.
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Hartel); and finally, in the course of time, some of the most illustrious theologians were designated as "Doctors of the Church" (q.v.).
Bologna at first conferred only the doctorate, but Paris and the English universities very soon introduced the preparatory degrees of baccalaureate and licentiate.