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It is also mixed with vinegar into which lettuce leaves are dipped before eating.
Some other common spices are cardamom—made from the seeds of several Elettaria and Amomum plants, shevid—an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae, mahleb—an aromatic spice made from the seeds of Prunus mahaleb, and limu amani—lime that has lost its water content.
The parboiled rice (called chelow) is drained and returned to the pot to be steamed.
This method results in an exceptionally fluffy rice with the rice grains separated and not sticky.
As a spice, verjuice powder (pudr e qure) is sometimes reinforced by verjuice and then dried.
Rose water, a flavored water made by steeping rose petals in water, is also a traditional and common ingredient in many Iranian dishes.
Persian hogweed (golpar), which grows wild in the humid mountainous regions of Iran, is used as a spice in various Iranian soups and stews.
A golden crust, called tadig, is created at the bottom of the pot using a thin layer of bread or potato slices.
Often, tadig is served plain with only a rice crust.